Trichokonins are synthesized by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) pathway, which is a type of biosynthetic pathway that is common in fungi and bacteria. The NRPS pathway involves the assembly of amino acids into peptide chains, which are then cyclized and modified to produce the final peptide product.
Trichokonins have been shown to have potent antifungal activity against a wide range of plant pathogens, including Fusarium, Botrytis, and Phytophthora species. They work by disrupting the cell membranes of fungal cells, leading to cell lysis and death. Trichokonins also have antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
In addition to their antimicrobial properties, trichokonins have also been shown to have insecticidal activity against several insect pests, including the rice stem borer and the cotton bollworm. They work by inhibiting the digestive enzymes of the insects, leading to starvation and death.